Normal carbohydrate metabolism

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Normal plasma glucose concentration is between 4.5 and 11mmol/L Almost all the glucose filtered by the renal glomeruli is reabsorbed by the renal tubular cells,… Read More »

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis may be defined to occur in patients with positive serum ketones and an arterial blood pH of less than or equal to 7.30… Read More »

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

A group of disorders sharing the common feature of hyperglycaemia Hyperglycaemia is due to defects in insulin secretion, action or both Chronic hyperglycaemia and metablic… Read More »

The normal pancreas

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Pancreas consists of 1 million islets of Langerhans Start to develop from week 9-11 gestation Contain exocrine and endocrine components Contain 4 major cell types, b, a, d and… Read More »